REST API (RESTful API) – TechTarget

A RESTful API is an architectural style for an application program interface (API) that uses HTTP requests to access and use data. That data can be used to GET, PUT, POST and DELETE data types, which refers to the reading, updating, creating and deleting of operations concerning resources.
An API for a website is code that allows two software programs to communicate with each other. The API spells out the proper way for a developer to write a program requesting services from an operating system or other application.
A RESTful API — also referred to as a RESTful web service or REST API — is based on representational state transfer (REST), which is an architectural style and approach to communications often used in web services development.
REST technology is generally preferred over other similar technologies. This tends to be the case because REST uses less bandwidth, making it more suitable for efficient internet usage. RESTful APIs can also be built with programming languages such as JavaScript or Python.
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The REST used by browsers can be thought of as the language of the internet. With cloud use on the rise, APIs are being used by cloud consumers to expose and organize access to web services. REST is a logical choice for building APIs that allow users to connect to, manage and interact with cloud services flexibly in a distributed environment. RESTful APIs are used by such sites as Amazon, Google, LinkedIn and Twitter.
A RESTful API breaks down a transaction to create a series of small modules. Each module addresses an underlying part of the transaction. This modularity provides developers with a lot of flexibility, but it can be challenging for developers to design their REST API from scratch. Currently, several companies provide models for developers to use; the models provided by Amazon S3, Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) and OpenStack Swift are the most popular.
A RESTful API uses commands to obtain resources. The state of a resource at any given timestamp is called a resource representation. A RESTful API uses existing HTTP methodologies defined by the RFC 2616 protocol, such as:
With REST, networked components are a resource the user requests access to — like a black box whose implementation details are unclear. All calls are stateless; nothing can be retained by the RESTful service between executions.
Data formats the REST API supports include:
Because the calls are stateless, REST is useful in cloud applications. Stateless components can be freely redeployed if something fails, and they can scale to accommodate load changes. This is because any request can be directed to any instance of a component; there can be nothing saved that has to be remembered by the next transaction. That makes REST preferable for web use. The RESTful model is also helpful in cloud services because binding to a service through an API is a matter of controlling how the URL is decoded. Cloud computing and microservices are almost certain to make RESTful API design the rule in the future.
RESTful API design was defined by Dr. Roy Fielding in his 2000 doctorate dissertation. In order to be a true RESTful API, a web service must adhere to the following six REST architectural constraints:
Besides the design and architecture constraints, individuals will have to confront some challenges with REST APIs. Some concepts which may be challenging can include:
REST and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) offer different methods to invoke a web service. REST is an architectural style, while SOAP defines a standard communication protocol specification for XML-based message exchange. REST applications can use SOAP.
RESTful web services are stateless. A REST-based implementation is simple compared to SOAP, but users must understand the context and content being passed along, as there’s no standard set of rules to describe the REST web services interface. REST services are useful for restricted profile devices, such as mobile, and are easy to integrate with existing websites.
SOAP requires less plumbing code — meaning low-level, infrastructural code that connects main code modules together — than REST services design. The Web Services Description Language describes a common set of rules to define the messages, bindings, operations and location of the service. SOAP web services are useful for asynchronous processing and invocation.
Prior to REST, developers used SOAP to integrate APIs. To make a call, developers handwrote an XML document with a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) in the body. They then specified the endpoint and POST their SOAP envelope to the endpoint.
In 2000, Roy Fielding and a group of developers decided to create a standard so that any server could talk to any other server. He defined REST and the architectural constraints explained above in his 2000 Ph.D. dissertation at the University of California, Irvine. These universal rules make it easier for developers to integrate software.
Salesforce was the first company to sell an API as part of its “Internet as a Service” package in 2000. However, few developers were actually able to use the complicated XML API. Then eBay built a REST API, which expanded its market to any site that could access its API. This caught the attention of another e-commerce giant, and Amazon announced its API in 2002.
Flickr launched its own RESTful API in August 2004, enabling bloggers to easily embed images on their sites and social media feeds. Facebook and Twitter both released their APIs in 2006, buckling under the pressure of developers who scraped the sites and created “Frankenstein” APIs. When Amazon Web Services (AWS) helped launch the cloud in 2006, developers were able to access data space in minutes using AWS’s REST API, and the request for public APIs quickly escalated.
Since then, developers have embraced RESTful APIs, using them to add functionality to their websites and applications. Today, REST APIs are considered the “backbone of the internet.”
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